AND DEFENDING PROJECT BUDGETS
A major concern of management is to project costs
and develop budgets representing the full range of costs:
expenses, including staff salaries/wages and benefits; management
overhead; equipment/software; supplies; services and contracts; maintenance,
licenses, copyright clearances and use fees, and communication fees;
and replacement costs.
costs, which can be considerable, especially for first time projects
or those involving untested methods. These costs include developing
RFPs, establishing workflow processes and documentation, system configuration,
training and other expenses incurred by the institution prior to project
launch. Typically not supported by outside funders, but they should
be documented. Factor in a "generous curve" from project inception to
covers unanticipated expenses; not traditionally an "allowable" expense
with US funding agencies, but increasingly recognized by UK and European
funders. Contingency will vary from project to project, depending on
complexity, staff experience, and size of effort.
often a negotiated rate, which includes space, utilities, services,
and general and administrative support, calculated on the total direct
costs. Cornell's federally negotiated rate for 1999-2003 is 57%. In
some countries a value-added tax (VAT) is calculated on the direct costs.
Institutions are often required to or voluntarily cover some of the
costs associated with imaging projects, such as all or part of indirects.
Cost-share is a real expense and should be calculated.
costs. Institutions typically support imaging projects out of other
projects or programs. Under-reporting such contributions conveys a false
sense of project costs.
is no consensus on what it costs to create digital image files, much less
maintain them and make them accessible. Available figures vary tremendously
with the types of material being scanned, the image-conversion and metadata
requirements, hardware/software used, and the range of functions covered
in the calculations. Some institutions provide cost figures, percentage
breakdowns, and future estimates. Note, however, that their cost assessments
will differ. Specific costs must be calculated based on local conditions.
RLG maintains a Worksheet
for Estimating Digital Reformatting Costs that details various components
to include in estimating budgets for image creation. See Additional Reading
for reports and articles on costing.
following sites provide information on digital funding sources, although
the information may be slightly dated:
& the United Kingdom
we are interested in referencing lists of funding sources for other
countries; if you can help, drop us a line.
2000-2003 Cornell University Library/Research Department